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"Demographic Trends in Hong Kong 1991-2021" published
     The Census and Statistics Department (C&SD) published today (December 29) a publication entitled "Demographic Trends in Hong Kong 1991-2021".
     The publication describes the growth, the age-sex structure and the patterns of fertility, mortality and marriage of the Hong Kong population in the past 30 years. The publication also depicts Hong Kong's demographic changes over the period 1991–2021, highlighting comparisons with the situations observed in selected economies during the same period.
     The population of Hong Kong increased at an average annual growth rate of 0.8% in the past 3 decades, from 5.75 million in 1991 to 7.41 million in 2021. Concurrent with this population growth, there were also significant demographic changes. 
     The population showed a continuing ageing trend. The median age of the population rose from 31.6 in 1991 to 46.3 in 2021. This is attributable to the declining fertility and the continuous improvement in mortality experienced in the last 30 years.
     Hong Kong's fertility showed a declining trend over the past 30 years. The total fertility rate decreased from 1 281 live births per 1 000 women in 1991 to 901 in 2003. It then rebounded to 1 285 in 2012, before declining gradually to 1 064 in 2019, and further decreased to 772 in 2021.
     Hong Kong experienced a continuous decline in mortality during 1991–2021, leading to an increase in life expectancy. The expectation of life at birth for males increased from 75.2 years in 1991 to 83.2 years in 2021. The expectation of life at birth for females increased from 80.7 years to 87.9 years during the same period.

     As for the trends in marriage, delay in marriage prevailed. In 2021, the median age at first marriage was 32.2 for bridegrooms and 30.6 for brides. In 1991, the corresponding median ages were 29.1 and 26.2 respectively. Furthermore, there was a rising trend of brides being Hong Kong women and bridegrooms being Mainland men in Mainland-Hong Kong cross-boundary marriages. The proportion of such marriages in all cross-boundary marriages increased from 6.1% in 1991 to 35.8% in 2019. Though the overall number of cross-boundary marriages dropped substantially due to the border control and quarantine measures in place in Hong Kong and the Mainland amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion still maintained at 32.0% in 2021.
     The number of divorce decrees granted increased significantly from 6 295 in 1991 to 16 692 in 2021.
     A summary of the key demographic statistics is presented in Table 1.
     Users can download the publication at the website of C&SD (www.censtatd.gov.hk/en/EIndexbySubject.html?pcode=B1120017&scode=150).
     Enquiries on the content of the publication can be directed to the Demographic Statistics Section (1), C&SD (Tel: 3903 6943; email: population@censtatd.gov.hk).
Ends/Thursday, December 29, 2022
Issued at HKT 16:30
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