Program for Persons with Dementia
are essential for living. Well-planned daily activities that help to provide
structure, meaning and achievement have positive effects for the person
Benefits of activities for the person with dementia
physical, mental, social and emotional health;
competence, achieve mastery that promote self esteem and self worth;
- To help
the person with dementia to realize his/her fullest potential and to
help them to rediscover themselves;
attention and adaptive skills that maximize independence;
opportunities for social interaction, emotional release that helps to
delay negative symptoms and promote positive aging;
pleasure, life satisfaction and enhance the quality of life.
Essential elements for appropriate activities
- Have specific
goal and meaning to the person with dementia;
- Able to
motivate patient for participation;
- Fit the
physical and mental capabilities of the person with dementia;
to the need, interest, age, social & educational background and
former life styles of the person with dementia;
opportunities for enjoyment during the process of participation;
opportunities for the sense of control and satisfaction;
- Does not
pose threat or sense of failure;
- The process
and content should be flexible and easily adapted to meet various needs
of the person with dementia.
Choice of activity programs
A safe and
relaxing environment, simplified workflow, and the use of tools or adaptations
could help the person with dementia to develop sense of control, competence
and maximize independence in self-care activities such as dressing, bathing,
grooming and dining etc.
in familiar household activities encourages continuous life experience.
When meal planning, cooking and money management become too demanding
for the persons with dementia, simple tasks like folding serviettes, table-setting
and sweeping the floor in a safe environment could be considered.
that encourage active participation and social interaction are valuable
for the person with dementia. Sing-a-long, listening to radio, playing
chess, physical exercise, keeping pets and craft work are common examples
of leisure activities that provide opportunity for pleasure and enjoyment.
process of recollection of the past and life reviews for the unresolved
conflicts, persons with dementia could achieve more consistent and positive
evaluations of their past, accept personal losses and preserve a sense
of usefulness and satisfaction with their lives. Caregiver(s) could simply
use a photo of the past event or a familiar song to encourage the person
with dementia to relive his/her past experience. If several persons with
dementia are grouped together to do the reminiscence activities, social
interaction and emotional release could be further facilitated.
Reality orientation activities
is the strategy to orientate the person with dementia to the "time", "place"
and "person" of their immediate environment. The use of large face clocks
and calendars in different rooms, maps and signs to indicate places of
their living environment, frequent greetings etc. are common strategies
to help persons with dementia to cope with their daily living. This can
also be organized with specific themes such as food, body parts, festival
events or community facilities etc.
Memory training activities
are commonly lost first but older memories are better preserved for the
person with dementia. Memory games such as cards matching, reviewing TV
drama plots and news discussion are good opportunities for them to realize
their memory potential and for social interaction and enjoyment.
Sensory stimulation activities
on a specific sense, the person with dementia could be assisted to explore
familiar smells, movements, textures, sights, sounds and tastes that relate
to his/her previous life experiences. Sensory stimulation could be used
to improve level of alertness and awareness to the environment and arouse
appropriate responses from the person with dementia. The taste of fruit,
the sound of birds, the smell of flowers and texture of toys are day-to-day
stimuli that could provide comfort, encourage social interaction and minimize
endless examples of activities that are suitable for persons with dementia.
Caregiver(s) should ensure a safe environment, match the activity carefully
with the need and ability of the person with dementia, so as to encourage
and support continuous life experience and enhance the quality of life
and dignity of the person with dementia.
- Communication skills
Management in Persons with Dementia
Book on Psychosocial Health Promotion in the Elderly (Traditional